Electrode fracture and low-energy nuclear reactions within batteries.
Widom A., Srivastava Y., Swain J., Montmollin G., Rosselli L.
Several experiments are presented clarifying the low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) processes due to the electrodynamic interaction between condensed-matter collective degrees of freedom and degrees of freedom internal to the nuclei. Of central importance is the neutron production that results from the fracture of brittle materials or the grinding of solid condensed matter into powders then appearing as colloidal particles within electrolytes in chemical cells. There are direct measurements of neutrons emitted from fracturing rocks in laboratories as well as geophysical neutron production before earthquakes previously detected in underground laboratories. Discussed are new experiments where plasma glows are detected from cathodes of electrolytic cells. LENR are in part associated with such electrolyte plasmas. Even without plasma, a slow shredding of the electrodes for long periods of time allows for the observation of colloidal electrolytic suspensions and LENR. Finally, it is shown that melted liquid lithium in contact with room temperature water gives rise to a bright white plasma explosion that is clearly related to the explosions routinely observed in lithium ion batteries. It is likely that such lithium plasmas have a nuclear as well as a chemical component as do many other similar electrolyte plasmas.