Labeling of exosomes by Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (USPIOs) nanoparticles for visualization by MRI.
Bontempi P., Busato A., Bonafede R., Scambi I., Schiaffino L., Benati D., Malatesta M., Sbarbati A., Mariotti R., Marzola P.
Recent findings indicate that the beneficial effects of stem cells could be mediated by the release of exosomes, $i.e.$ membrane vesicles with sizes ranging from 30 nm to 100 nm. Superparamagnetic-Iron-Oxide (SPIOs) nanoparticles have been extensively used to label stem cells and to detect, track, and quantify them $in vivo$ by MRI. In this work we demonstrate that Ultrasmall SPIOs can be used to label and visualize exosomes $in vivo$ by MRI. We report a new experimental protocol for labeling exosomes that allows detection by MRI while preserving their morphology and physiological characteristics.